Subleq (SUBtract and branch if Less-than or EQual to zero) is an assembly extension to the OISC instruction subleq.
Subleq is a simple one instruction language. Each subleq instruction has 3 operands:
A B C
which are memory addresses. Execution of one instruction A B C subtracts the value of memory in A from the content of memory in B, depositing the result in address B. If value after subtraction in B less or equal to zero, then execution jumps to the address C; otherwise to the next instruction.
For example, in
3 4 6 7 7 7 3 4 0
first instruction subtracts 7 (address 3) from 7 (address 4). The result in address 4 is 0, so goto 6. On address 6 is the instruction 3 4 0 which again substracts 7 from now 0 and jumps back to 0. Here is a sequence of execution (A and B are shown after subtraction)
0: 3 4 6 A=7 B=0 6: 3 4 0 A=7 B=-7 0: 3 4 6 A=7 B=-14 6: 3 4 0 A=7 B=-21 0: 3 4 6 A=7 B=-28 ...
 Hello, world!
For simplicity, let us replace the real cell addresses with names(labels).
X Y 6 X:7 Y:7 7 X Y 0
On the first line X refer to a memory cell defined somewhere else. On the second line X is actually defined by X:7, which means that this memory cell has name X and its initial value 7.
Now let our language to make something useful - produce output. To achieve that we need a special memory address (because all the instruction can do is subtract). Lets call it -1, then the processor must know that an operation with the address -1 is input or output.
H (-1) 3 i (-1) 6 0 0 (-1) H:72 i:105
This program prints "Hi". The program's code is
9 -1 3 10 -1 6 0 0 -1 72 105
72 and 105 are ASCII codes for 'H' and 'i'. The third line instruct to subtract value of zero's cell from itself and to go to the address -1 (since the result will always be 0). Go to negative address means halt. This last instruction could well be
5 5 -8
any A and B registers but A=B and any negative C.
Since we are using already symbolic names for cell addresses we need a simple converter to produce a digit code for SUBLEQ executor. This simple converter can do slightly more:
# Hello world! (Hi) Hi (-1) Hi+1 (-1) 0 0 (-1) . Hi: "Hi"
Note the differences: comment line, goto address may be left out (meaning next instruction address), arithmetic expression (Hi+1), literal "Hi" equivalent to 'H' 'i', and dot meaning that the following is not an instruction.
Dot does not make difference in the execution in this case, but it make difference in the code:
without dot this line would be
72 105 12
12 is the address of the next (not present) instruction.
 Hello, world! (more)
Placing more then 1 instruction on one line will require semicolon:
Hi (-1); Hi+1 (-1); 0 0 (-1)
Instructions which clear one memory cell are always in the form: Z Z. This can be shortened to just Z. And yet another convention is ?(question mark): it refers to the next to current address. For example,
3 4 6 7 7 7 3 4 0
can be rewritten as
3 4 ?+3 7 7 ?+1 3 4 0
Given these improvements we can write a proper "hello world" program which iterates over a string of characters .
# Hello world! # output *p; a; p Z; Z a; Z a:0 (-1) # p++ m1 p; #check if p<E a; E Z; Z a; Z; p a (-1) Z Z 0 . p:H Z:0 m1:-1 . H: "Hello, World!\n" E:E
 How to run subleq programs
 Subleq assembler
sqasm.exe < hw.sq > hw
will read hw.sq file and produce hw text file. If hw.sq is the first "hello world" example, the command also prints "UNRESOLVED: [OUT:4]" which tells that label OUT was not resolved - it is OK because OUT is the default name for the output register for the emulator.
 Subleq emulator
 See also
- Addleq Variation of Subleq
- P1eq Variation of Subleq
- BitBitJump Simpler OISC
- Higher Subleq C compiler into Subleq
- OISC One Instruction Set Computer
- DJN OISC Simple variation
- Subleq+ Subleq variation which is TC with no self-modification
 External resources
-  The first reference to a very similar form of OISC (SBN) (please, correct if wrong).
- Wikipedia article on Subleq and other OISCs
- Mark II OISC Self-Interpreter
- Oleg Mazonka's Subleq page
- Subleq interpreter in Redcode
- 99 bottles of beer in Subleq
- Compiling C-style language into Subleq
- TechTinkering Articles about Subleq
- Subleq-based CPU, Subleq assembly libraries, and a very minimal Subleq interpreter
- Online Subleq compiler, assembler and emulator