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Paradigm(s) imperative
Designed by Lealcy Tardelli Belegante
Appeared in 2017
Memory system tape-based
Dimensions one-dimensional
Computational class Turing complete
Major implementations C# Interpreter
Influenced by Brainfuck
File extension(s) {{{files}}}

PNID means "Previous, Next, Increment, Decrement" and is a superset of Brainfuck.

Language overview

As Brainfuck, PNID operates on an array of memory cells, also referred to as the tape, each initially set to zero. There is a pointer, initially pointing to the first memory cell. The commands are:

Command Description
p Move the pointer one cell to the left. if the pointer gets below zero, then it cycles to the last position of the memory
n Move the pointer one cell to the right. if the pointer gets above the available memory, then it becomes zero
i Increment the memory cell under the pointer
d Decrement the memory cell under the pointer
w Output the character signified by the cell at the pointer
r Input a character and store it in the cell at the pointer
() Repeat the code inside the parenthesis until the appointed value becomes zero
$ Read everything from the default input to the memory until it find a new line
'c Write the character c to the appointed cell
"" Write everything between the double quotes to the memory
; Write the numeric value of the appointed cell to the default output
^ Jump the pointer back to the first cell
j Jump the code to the position contained in the current cell
c Clear all the memory
% If the current cell has a value greater than zero, generates a random number between zero and that value, otherwise generates a number between zero and INT_MAX
\n Write the number n to the current cell

For compatibility with brainfuck, the commands <>+-[] are also accepted instead of pnid().


The Interpreter accept the following commands:

Command Description
h Show an informative help.
q Exit the interpreter

If the execution enters a loop or a deadlock, you can break out of it by pressing ESC.


Hello, World!

This program prints out the words Hello, World!:

"Hello, World!"^(.n)

Hello, name!

This program asks for your name, then greats you:

"What's your name? "^(wn)c^$n"Hello, "p(p)n(wn)^(wn)'!w

Coin toss

Every time you executes this program, it will give heads or tails:


Memory and wrapping

In the current implementation of the C# interpreter, the memory has UINT16_MAX cells, each of has (sizeof)int size.

Related languages

  • Brainfuck.
  • pbrain is a brainfuck extension that supports procedures.
  • cbrain is a derivative of pbrain as implemented in pbrain.c, adding integers and operators.
  • RUM stands for "bRainfUck iMproved." and adds procedures, strings and repetition.
  • Toadskin is a brainfuck variant that supports procedures, but uses a stack instead of a tape.
  • Brainfork adds a Y command to fork the current thread.
  • Fm edits a string on alphabet {0,1,...,m-1} (m >= 2).
  • FRAK assemble instructions to brainfuck code.
  • FukYorBrane and BF Joust pit two Brainfuck-like programs against each other, as in Core War (see Redcode).
  • Smallfuck operates only on bits and has no input- or output-commands.
  • Spoon uses a Huffman coded set of instructions corresponding to Brainfuck's commands.
  • BrainDuino BF port on Arduino HW platform (based on Atmel's ATMega). Extended by two special I/O operations and special overflow protection.
  • Puzzlang turns every program into an exercise in patience and logic puzzle skills. The lone X operator becomes any of brainfuck's instructions, depending on the surrounding characters.
  • Alarm Clock Radio throws away the instructions to decrement the memory pointer or memory value.
  • Portal and Portal 2 allows code-level pointer manipulation and theoretically implements the Wang-B Machine.
  • tbf is a language that can be compiled to Brainfuck. It includes variables, strings, macros and improved loops.
  • Grin adds more efficient arithmetic functions to Brainfuck.
  • tinyBF and its variant RISBF are brainfuck equivalents with only 4 opcodes.

Some other funny variants:

  • Ook! works exactly like brainfuck, except the syntax is in Orangutan.
  • Blub is the same for fish.
  • Matisse uses colors to merge brainfuck codes and program comments.
  • Brainloller has the same commands as brainfuck, except they're read from a png image.
  • COW is like Ook!, except with a bovine syntax.
  • Pi obfuscates Brainfuck instructions in random errors in pi digits.

Some languages inspired by brainfuck, but with more major differences:

  • Aura requires data to be stored in the code space.
  • PATH and SNUSP attempt to combine brainfuck with Befunge.
  • Wierd arose out of an earlier attempt to combine brainfuck with Befunge.

External resources