can be written as
Now each character of the string
alert("Hello, world!") can be written using only the 6 characters
+!() in a tricky way.
For a start, let's just look at the letter "a", how it's written in JSFuck:
"a": from string
"false", second character (index 1 counting from 0)...
"false"can be made from
false+, i.e. the boolean constant false plus an empty array...
(false+): we write false as
!(negation applied to an empty array)...
(!+): 1 is a number, we can write it as
(!+)[+true]: since false is
!, true is
(!+)[+!!]<<< that's it!
In a few steps, the letter "a" has been converted into pure JSFuck code. Other characters can be much harder to produce, but over the years, tricky ways have been found to write any character using only the characters allowed in JSFuck. Anyway, those can be quite long strings for each character, and that's why a simple Hello, World! program in JSFuck takes up more than 10000 characters!
But let's come back to our example: after all JSFucked characters are joined back together like
"a"+"l"+"e"+"r"+"t"+..., there's still the
Function(...)() part to convert.
In fact, Function in JSFuck is made from
["flat"]["constructor"], i.e., the "constructor" property of the "flat" property of an empty array. The strings "flat" and "constructor" are just sequences of characters, and we already know that there's always a tricky way to write each character.
Hieroglyphy is not a real JSFuck encode, because it uses extra characters like
}, but it's listed here for completeness: