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Getchl is an esoteric shell designed for WalrusOS that uses getch() as its primary form of input. Every time a keystroke occurs, Getchl executes a command. This makes it an esoteric shell in that it uses irregular forms of user interaction, coupled with the esoteric programming language used (which is really just a standard stack-based golfing language).

Data Model

In one of my favorite data model families, the model behind Getchl is a both-sides-infinite tape of byte stacks with a scalar accumulator.


Term Meaning
Stack LIFO queuing mechanism
Queue FIFO queuing mechanism
Tape A right-infinite array with an index
Pop Take the value off the top of the stack and return it
Push Put a value on the stack
Accumulator A scalar that holds a value
0gnirts A null-terminated string on the stack (alternatively, if no null terminator is present, the entire stack as a string) (first character of string at top of stack for technical reasons)
Mode Alternative interpreter modes
Default mode The standard interpreter mode
String mode The mode where commands are ord()ed and pushed on the stack
Block mode The mode where commands are saved to a block instead of executed (used for evaluating groups of commands later)
Prime mode The mode where commands are slightly different for control purposes
Safe mode The mode where commands do not execute when the stack is too short, instead returning 0

All values are modulo 256 (or not, for a unicode implementation).

Command List

All commands are subject to change. Feel free to suggest such changes yourself.

Hex Ch Name Meaning
20 ' ' NOP Do absolutely nothing
21 ! NOT Push the logical inversion of a popped value
22 " STR Enter string mode
23 # DEFINE Pop a value, map it to the previous command (or block)
24 $ DROP Pop a value and discard it
25 % MOD Pop a, pop b, push b%a
26 % MOD Pop a, pop b, push b%a
27 ' PRIME Enter prime mode for the following character
28 ( START BLOCK Start forming a block
29 ) END BLOCK Terminate a block
2A * MULT Pop a, pop b, push b*a
2B + ADD Pop a, pop b, push b+a
2C , INP Get a single character as input and pop its ASCII value on the stack (fail if EOF)
2D - SUB Pop a, pop b, push b-a
2E . PRINT Print the character whose ascii value is on the ToS
2F / DIV Pop a, pop b, push b//a
30 0 ZERO Push 0
31 1 ONE Push 1
32 2 TWO Push 2
33 3 THREE Push 3
34 4 FOUR Push 4
35 5 FIVE Push 5
36 6 SIX Push 6
37 7 SEVEN Push 7
38 8 EIGHT Push 8
39 9 NINE Push 9
3A : DUP Pop a, push a, push a
3B ; TERMINATE End session
3C < LT Pop a, pop b, push 1 if b<a, else push 0
3D = EQ Pop a, pop b, push 1 if b=a, else push 0
3E > GT Pop a, pop b, push 1 if b>a, else push 0
3F ? IF Pop a, pop b, pop c, if a!=0 push b, else push c.
40 @ REDUCE Repeat the previous instruction (or block) until it fails
41 A A Push 10
42 B B Push 11
43 C C Push 12
44 D D Push 13
45 E E Push 14
46 F F Push 15
47 G GLOBAL Create a variable (pop v, pop 0gnirts name, map name to v)
48 H
49 I INVERT Invert the stack
st2 = Stack()
while len(stack) > 0:
    st = st2 
4A J TAPE RELATIVE JUMP Pop n, go n-127 cells to the left on the tape
4B K
4C L LEFT Go left on the tape
4D M MAXIMIZE Pop a, set maximum stack size to a (pushes fail when len(stack) = stack.max) (extraneous elements dropped) (0 means no bound)
4E N
4F O
50 P
51 Q QUEUE Toggle queuing mode (all PUSHes become ENQUEUEs, all POPs become DEQUEUEs)
52 R RIGHT Go right on the tape
53 S
54 T
55 U
56 V
57 W
58 X
59 Y
5A Z
5B [ ROT Pop a, pop b, pop c, push a, push c, push b
5C SWAP Pop a, pop b, push a, push b
5D ] ROTCC Pop a, pop b, pop c, push b, push a, push c
5E ^ ACCUMULATE Pop a and put it in the accumulator
5F _ DECCUMULATE Push value in the accumulator
60 ` APPLY/ EVAL Pop a value and evaluate it as ASCII
61 a
62 b
63 c
64 d DIR Change the current working directory (pop a 0gnirts s, cd to s)
65 e
66 f FIND Pop tf, Repeatedly pop a until a==tf, push a
67 g GET Inverse of G: Pop a 0gnirts, push the global with that name
68 h
69 i IDENTITY Pop a value and push it (NOP normally, but equivalent to ROLL in queueing mode)
6A j JUMP Pop a 0gnirts, jump back to that location and reexecute to the current point
6B k
6C l LABEL Get a 0gnirts, label this location as a jumpback location
6D m
6E n
6F o OPEN Pop a, get 0gnirts s from the stack, open the file s and associate it with value a
70 p
71 q
72 r READ Pop a, read the content of the file associated with a
73 s REPLACE Pop three strings off the stack, replace s[1] with s[2] in s[0], push s[0] onto the stack
74 t
75 u
76 v
77 w WRITE Pop a, pop 0gnirts s, write s to the file associated with a
78 x
79 y
7A z
7B { COMMENT Stop executing commands (??? do I need this for a shell?)
7C OR a
7D } DECOMMENT Resume executing commands
7E ~ SAFE Toggle safemode

Prime Mode Commands

Prime mode is an interpreter mode where commands are executed with alternative meanings. Unless otherwise specified, the interpreter returns to default mode after execution.

Character Name Meaning
'@ CONDITIONAL REDUCE Pop value, negate it, execute previous command (or block) until a certain type of failure, fail if it fails on another failure (complicated, I know)
'? CONDITIONAL EXECUTE Pop a, execute the previous instruction (or block) if a != 0
'; FAIL Pop a value and fail with its negated value
'` RUN Pop a value and execute the function defined to it
'( CONTINUED PRIME Enter continued prime mode (terminates on \)). All commands are interpreted as prime (e.g. '(abc) is equivalent to 'a'b'c).
'' DOUBLE PRIME Enter double-prime mode (currently does nothing)
'G GLOBAL STRING Pop a 0gnirts name, pop a 0gnirts s, map name to string s
'g GET STRING Pop a 0gnirts, push the 0gnirts it's mapped to
'L RELATIVE LEFT JUMP Pop n, go n cells to the left on the tape
'R RELATIVE RIGHT JUMP Pop n, go n cells to the right on the tape
'| XOR Pop a, pop b, push b^a

Failure Codes

Some commands can return failure codes when executed under certain conditions. Failure codes do not terminate the script. All failure codes are negative.

Value Meaning
-1 Not enough values on stack
-2 Attempted to push onto full stack
-3 Divide or modulo by 0
-4 No previous command (start of script or block)
-5 No input character
-6 Attempt to print null character
-7 Invalid varname
-8 Invalid filename
-9 Invalid label

Useful Constructs and Mnemonics

Construct Meaning
<op>@ Where op is any operator (+, -, *, /, %, &, |, '|), reduce the stack with that operation (+ sums the stack, * multiplies it, etc)
,@ Get an input string, terminated by EOF
.@ Print a 0gnirts
$@ Clear the stack
`@ Eval a 0gnirts
|! NOR
'|! XNOR
<n>:@ Fill the remainder of the stack with value n (exclude n for existing ToS) (Make sure the stack has a max, or it will hang forever)
<n>(<coms>1-0\/$)@ [I think this is right] Execute coms n times (Push n on stack, then execute coms and push 1 and subtract 1 from n, push 1, swap, and divide it by n and drop. This means it fails when n is equal to 0, thus terminating the loop) (note that coms must not change the stack, or at least must bury their values under the values.)

See Also