Math++

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Math++ is an esoteric programming language by SuperJedi224, defined by this java implementation.

All Math++ variables are 64-bit IEEE 754 floats. The language has 26 variables (each represented by a lowercase letter) and a Map data structure.

Syntax

The program consists of one or more lines each of which consists of an expression followed, optionally, by a greater than symbol (">") then a target designator.

The following target designators are recognized:

out

The default target designator, which is used implicitly when none is specified. Prints the result to stdout.

<any variable name>

Stores the result to that variable

{<any value>}

Associates the result with the specified key in the map

$

Round the result towards zero and go to that line. Going to line zero is treated as an exit statement, going to any other out-of-bounds line number yields an exception.

Language features

Binary Operators

In descending order by precedence Math++ has the following binary operators (parentheses may be used to modify the order of operations as needed):

Modulus

a%b

Equivalent to (a-b*_(a/b))

Division

a/b

Returns the quotient of a and b.

Multiplication

a*b

Returns the product of a and b.

Subtraction

a-b

Returns the difference of a and b.

Addition

a+b

Returns the sum of a and b.

Boolean AND

a&b

Short-circuiting logical AND operator. Returns 0 if a is zero, !!b otherwise.

Boolean OR

a|b

Short-circuiting logical OR operator. Returns a if a is nonzero, b otherwise.

Unary Operators

Math++ also has the following Unary operators (which always have higher precedence than any binary operators):

Unary Minus

-a

Returns -1*a.

Common Logarithm

log a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns log10(a). Yields -Infinity when a=0, and NaN when a<0.

Natural Logarithm

ln a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns loge(a). Yields -Infinity when a=0, and NaN when a<0.

Sine

sin a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns sine(a). Uses radians.

Cosine

cos a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns cosine(a). Uses radians.

Tangent

tan a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns tangent(a). Uses radians.

Secant

sec a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns secant(a)=1/cosine(a). Uses radians.

Cosecant

csc a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns cosecant(a)=1/sine(a). Uses radians.

Cotangent

cot a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns cotangant(a)=1/tangent(a). Uses radians.

Square Root

sqrt a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns the square root of a (NaN if a is negative).

Cube Root

cbrt a

The space is optional but should typically be included for readability. Returns the cube root of a.

Floor

_a

Returns a rounded down (towards zero) to the nearest integer.

Boolean NOT

!a

Returns 1 if a is 0, and 0 otherwise.

Absolute Value

abs a

The space is optional, but should typically be included for readability. Returns the absolute value of a.

IO

Output, as mentioned above, is handled by using the target designator "out" or by omitting the target designator on an expresssion.

A number can be taken from the input by using a question mark (?) in an expression.

Constants

The following special expressions return constant values:

$e

Returns Euler's number.

$pi

Returns pi.

$phi

Returns phi=(1+sqrt(5))/2.

Pseudorandom Values

A pseudorandom value between 0 and 1 (potentially including zero, but not including one) can be generated by using the special expression "$rand".

Using the Map

As was explained in the syntax section, associating a value with a key in the map can be done using {<key>} as the target designator for an expression producing the value.

Retrieving the value associated with a key can likewise be done by using {<key>} in an expression.

Sample Programs

Truth Machine

2+2*!?>$
1>out
2>$
0>out

Countdown from 100

100>a
a>out
a-1>a
2*!!a>$

Square Root of input

sqrt?

Sum of two inputs

?+?

Square of input

?>a
a*a>out